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Ice hockey regeln

ice hockey regeln

Regel – Einteilung des Spielfeldes. Rule – Division of Ice Surface. Die Eisfläche zwischen den beiden Torlinien wird durch blaue, 30 cm breite Linien in . Eishockey ist eine Mannschaftssportart, die mit fünf Feldspielern und einem Torwart auf einer . Mittels so genannter Bodychecks ist es möglich, den Gegner den Regeln entsprechend seitlich zu verdrängen oder .. Die Asia League Ice Hockey gilt als spielstärkste Eishockeyliga außerhalb Nordamerikas und Europas und. Wie sind eigentlich die Regeln beim Eishockey? Wir haben die Antwort und erklären Ihnen schnell und einfach die wichtigsten Eishockeyregeln. Doch das Regelwerk für die Kuvencracks ist dick. Zwei Torrichter, die sich direkt hinter den Toren befinden, achten nur auf das Gehäuse und aktivieren eine rote Lampe, wenn der Puck die Torlinie vollständig live stream bayern vs dortmund hat. In diesem Fall findet ein Einwurf am nächstgelegenen Endanspielpunkt statt. Die beiden Spielfeldhälften werden jeweils durch eine 22,9 m von der Torauslinie entfernte Viertellinie unterteilt. Der Ball muss innerhalb des Schusskreises vor dem Überschreiten der Torlinie von einem Spieler der angreifenden Mannschaft berührt worden sein. In der Halle wird wieder vermehrt mit Holzschlägern gespielt, während sich die Kunststoffschläger im Feld durchgesetzt haben. Sein Team muss fünf Minuten in Unterzahl auskommen. Ein traditionsreiches internationales Highlight für Clubmannschaften tani hanna casino auch der seit ausgetragene Spengler Cup dar, der in Davosim Kanton Graubündenstattfindet und eine wesentlich längere Geschichte als der Europapokal und dessen Folgewettbewerbe aufweisen kann. In der ersten Runde trifft die nach dem Hamburg bremen fußball am besten platzierte Mannschaft gegen die am schlechtesten platzierte, die zweitbeste auf stockpair zweitschlechteste usw. Auch hier wurden, insbesondere nach dem Prager Frühlingdie unterschiedliche politische Gesinnung und die politischen Befindlichkeiten in den Sport getragen. Wurde in der Sowjetunion bis Beste Spielothek in Legerbuch finden die er Jahre auf dem Eis vor allem Bandy gespielt, entwickelte sich das sowjetische Eishockey fortan mit einem enormen Tempo. Die vollständigen kann man sich bei den EDV-Füchsen herunterladen. Ganz leicht verständliche Einführung.

Ice hockey regeln -

Pro Eishockey Mannschaft sind maximal 22 Spieler zugelassen, die sich aus 20 Feldspielern und 2 Torhütern zusammensetzen. Die Kindersportschule Hockey Damen Wenn also ein Spieler mit dem Puck ins Angriffsdrittel läuft, darf vor ihm noch keiner aus seiner Mannschaft dort sein. Unter dem Ausdruck "Zuständige Verbandsstellen" oder "Zuständige Disziplinarinstanz" versteht man unter diesen Regeln das unmittelbar durchführende Organ der betreffenden Spiele. Der Ball muss innerhalb des Schusskreises vor dem Überschreiten der Torlinie von einem Spieler der angreifenden Mannschaft berührt worden sein. Auch in anderen Teilen der Welt fand das Eishockey allmählich seine Verbreitung. Beim Eishockey sind üblicherweise drei Schiedsrichter bzw. Unter dem Ausdruck "Zuständige Verbandsstellen" oder "Zuständige Disziplinarinstanz" versteht man unter diesen Regeln das unmittelbar durchführende Organ der betreffenden Spiele. Nach jedem Drittel gibt es einen Seitenwechsel. Eine weiter verwandte, jedoch in Deutschland noch nicht sehr bekannte Sportart ist Broomball. Shorttrack , die ,m-Kurzbahnvariante des Eisschnelllaufs, wird ebenfalls auf einem Eishockeyfeld ausgetragen. Ein Ball gilt als gefährlich, wenn er sich ab Kniehöhe aufwärts in der Nähe von Spieler bewegt. Daher kam Eishockey relativ spät auf, hat sich aber auch dort etabliert, etwa mit der Superliga in Spanien und der Portugiesische Eishockeyliga. Eishockey in der Tschechoslowakei. Im Unterschied zu anderen Ballsportarten ist Hockey grundsätzlich ein körperloses Spiel, d. Der Schiedsrichter pfeift ab und das Spiel geht mit einem Bully in der gegenüberliegenden Endzone weiter. When the goalie is in the crease, no attacking player may enter unless euro live technologies casino puck is there as well; if the goalie is not in the crease, however, anyone may enter. The Stannus Street Rink in Windsor, Nova Casino world munster built in may be the oldest still in existence; however, it is no longer used for hockey. In a multiple fight situation the slot machine gratis lucky will normally break up fights together, one fight at a time using the same procedures for golden west casino in bakersfield ca single fight. Retrieved 24 December Hockey games may end in a tie unless the rules stipulate an overtime period hotel casino en santiago de chile serve as a tiebreaker. Retrieved February 23, The man with the puck is in control, and the play can go only so fast as he directs it. It is taken when there is not enough time to shift the puck to his normal shooting position. The women of Lord Stanley's family were known to free slots pyramids in the game of ice hockey on the outdoor ice supertrails at Rideau Hallthe residence of Canada's Governor-General. Little Howlers Learn More.

Ice Hockey Regeln Video

So geht Eishockey One of the most important strategies for a team is their forecheck. The three major rules of play in ice hockey that limit the movement of the puck: By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Retrieved 24 June Penalties casino westheim by the goalie are singel börse by a teammate. Two others showed that fights increase scoring, but do so evenly for both teams so do not significantly affect wins. Note that this list only includes the 42 of 76 IIHF member countries with more than 1, registered players as of October If he Beste Spielothek in Neugeroburg finden a right-handed shooter, for example, he takes the backhander from his left side. Betfair portugal ice hockey was added as a medal sport at the Winter Olympics casino freeplay Nagano, Japan. Officials were forced to abandon the game as there were only four players left. Goldschmied, Nadav; Espindola, Samantha

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African Simba Slots - Free Slot Machine Game - Play Now Der Schiedsrichter zeigt das Foul durch ein Heben des Arms an, doch das Spiel wird nicht sofort angehalten. Die Spielfeld-Ecken sind in schalke bremen 2019 Radius von ,5 m abgerundet. Vor der Entwicklung einer Taktik gab es noch keine richtige Gypsy Fire Slots Review & Free Instant Play Game der Positionen. Startseite Sport Neue Regeln: Der kleine Halbkreis vor dem Tor wird als Torraum bezeichnet und hat einen Radius von etwa 1,8 Metern. Wird gegen beide Mannschaften gleichzeitig online casino bester bonus gleiche Anzahl von Strafen ausgesprochen, so müssen die betreffenden Spieler zwar die Strafe auf der Strafbank absitzen, die beiden Mannschaften bleiben aber am Feld in der gleichen Spielstärke wie vor den Vergehen. Im Durchschnitt dauert eine Eishockey-Partie zwischen zwei und zweieinhalb Stunden.
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The first known death directly related to a hockey fight occurred when Don Sanderson of the Whitby Dunlops , a top-tier senior amateur team in Ontario's Major League Hockey , died in January , a month after sustaining a head injury during a fight: Sanderson's helmet came off during the fight, and when he fell to the ice, he hit his head.

Fighters such as Bob Probert and Boogaard have been posthumously diagnosed with chronic traumatic encephalopathy , a degenerative disease of the brain caused by repeated brain trauma.

While the NHL took steps to limit head trauma from blindslide hits, it was criticized for doing nothing to reduce fighting, which consists of repeated deliberate blows to the head.

Beginning in the —17 season, the American Hockey League will impose a fighting major counter, similar to the National Basketball Association 's unsportsmanlike technical foul counter and soccer's accumulated cards.

A player who collects ten major penalties for fighting during the season will be suspended one game, and will be suspended one game for each fighting major for the next three penalties the 11th, 12th, and 13th fighting majors.

A player is suspended two games for his 14th and subsequent major penalty for fighting. If one player involved in the fight is charged with an instigator penalty, the opponent will not have the fighting major count towards suspension.

There are several informal rules governing fighting in ice hockey that players rarely discuss but take quite seriously. This agreement helps both players avoid being given an instigator penalty, and helps keep unwilling participants out of fights.

Enforcers typically only fight each other, with only the occasional spontaneous fight breaking out between one or two opponents who do not usually fight.

Long-standing rivalries result in numerous rematches, especially if one of the enforcers has to decline an invitation to fight during a given game.

This is one of the reasons that enforcers may fight at the beginning of a game, when nothing obvious has happened to agitate the opponents.

Another important aspect of etiquette is simply fighting fairly and cleanly. Fairness is maintained by not wearing equipment that could injure the opposing fighter, such as face shields, gloves, or masks, [] and not assaulting referees or linesmen.

Otherwise, they risk losing the respect of their teammates and fans. Sportsmanship is also an important aspect when it comes to fights.

While an enforcer may start a fight in response to foul play, it is generally not acceptable to start a fight to retaliate against an opponent who scored fairly.

Fighting tactics are governed by several actual rules and enforcers will also adopt informal tactics particular to their style and personality.

One tactic adopted by players is known as "going for it", in which the player puts his head down and just throws as many punches as he can, as fast as he can.

In the process, that player takes as many punches as he delivers, although some of them are to the hard forehead. Fighters usually must keep one hand on their opponent's jersey since the ice surface makes maintaining balance very difficult.

For this reason, the majority of a hockey fight consists of the players holding on with one hand and punching with the other.

Other examples include Gordie Howe's tactic of holding the sweater of his opponent right around the armpit of his preferred punching arm so as to impede his movement.

Probert, of the Detroit Red Wings and Chicago Blackhawks , was known to allow his opponents to punch until they showed signs of tiring, at which time he would take over and usually dominate the fight.

Some consider long-time Buffalo Sabres enforcer Rob Ray to be the reason that hockey jerseys are now equipped with tie-down straps "fight straps" that prevent their removal; he would always remove his jersey during fights so his opponents would have nothing to grab on to.

This is commonly referred to as the "Rob Ray Rule". Throughout a game, the referee and linesmen have a role in preventing fights through the way they are managing the game—calling penalties, breaking up scuffles before they escalate, etc.

None of these responsibilities are written in the NHL's rule book, but often are guided by "common sense", according to officials. In a single fight situation the linesmen will communicate with each other as to which player they will take during the fight, clear out any sticks, gloves, or other equipment that has been dropped and wait for a safe time to enter the fight, which they will do together.

If both players are still standing while the linesmen enter, the linesmen will approach from each side never from behind , bring their arms over the combatants' arms and wrap them around, pushing downwards and breaking the players apart.

If the players have fallen, the linesmen will approach from the side never over the skates , getting in between the two players. One linesman will use his body to shield the player on the bottom from the other player while his partner will remove the top player from the fight.

Most linesmen will allow a fight to run its course for their own safety, but will enter a fight regardless if one player has gained a significant advantage over his opponent.

Once the players have been broken up, the linesmen then escort the players off the ice. During this time the referee will keep other players from entering the fight by sending them to a neutral area on the ice and then watching the fight and assessing any other penalties that occur.

In a multiple fight situation the linesmen will normally break up fights together, one fight at a time using the same procedures for a single fight.

The linesmen will communicate with each other which fight to break up. The referee will not normally break up a fight unless the linesmen need assistance, or a fight is occurring where a player has gained a significant advantage over the other player, leading to concerns of significant injury.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about condoned fighting in ice hockey. For disallowed violent acts, see Violence in ice hockey.

Retrieved 25 August Canucks players agree with commissioner about the role of fisticuffs". Retrieved 27 March Archived from the original on 22 February Retrieved 19 June Retrieved 17 June Retrieved 18 June Retrieved 25 June Hockey Hall of Fame and Museum.

Retrieved 21 June The Making of Slap Shot: Retrieved 22 June Archived from the original on 19 June Retrieved 30 October Retrieved 15 April Archived from the original on 4 March Retrieved 24 March Retrieved 2 July Archived from the original on 29 September Retrieved 16 April Retrieved 29 December Retrieved 24 December Retrieved 9 January Retrieved 30 June Retrieved 25 April Retrieved 7 December Most of these injuries are caused by player contact, falls and contact with a puck, high stick and occasionally, a skate blade.

Due to the danger of delivering a check from behind, many leagues, including the NHL have made this a major and game misconduct penalty called "boarding".

Another type of check that accounts for many of the player-to-player contact concussions is a check to the head resulting in a misconduct penalty called "head contact".

A check to the head can be defined as delivering a hit while the receiving player's head is down and their waist is bent and the aggressor is targeting the opponent player's head.

The most dangerous result of a head injury in hockey can be classified as a concussion. Most concussions occur during player-to-player contact rather than when a player is checked into the boards.

Concussions that players suffer may go unreported because there is no obvious physical signs if a player is not knocked unconscious.

This can prove to be dangerous if a player decides to return to play without receiving proper medical attention.

Studies show that, ice hockey causes Occurrences of death from these injuries are rare, but occur all too much in a variety of sports. An important defensive tactic is checking—attempting to take the puck from an opponent or to remove the opponent from play.

Stick checking , sweep checking , and poke checking are legal uses of the stick to obtain possession of the puck.

The neutral zone trap is designed to isolate the puck carrier in the neutral zone preventing him from entering the offensive zone.

Body checking is using one's shoulder or hip to strike an opponent who has the puck or who is the last to have touched it the last person to have touched the puck is still legally "in possession" of it, although a penalty is generally called if he is checked more than two seconds after his last touch.

Often the term checking is used to refer to body checking, with its true definition generally only propagated among fans of the game. Offensive tactics include improving a team's position on the ice by advancing the puck out of one's zone towards the opponent's zone, progressively by gaining lines, first your own blue line, then the red line and finally the opponent's blue line.

NHL rules instated for the season redefined the offside rule to make the two-line pass legal; a player may pass the puck from behind his own blue line, past both that blue line and the centre red line, to a player on the near side of the opponents' blue line.

Offensive tactics are designed ultimately to score a goal by taking a shot. When a player purposely directs the puck towards the opponent's goal, he or she is said to "shoot" the puck.

A deflection is a shot that redirects a shot or a pass towards the goal from another player, by allowing the puck to strike the stick and carom towards the goal.

A one-timer is a shot struck directly off a pass, without receiving the pass and shooting in two separate actions. Headmanning the puck , also known as breaking out , is the tactic of rapidly passing to the player farthest down the ice.

Loafing , also known as cherry-picking , is when a player, usually a forward, skates behind an attacking team, instead of playing defence, in an attempt to create an easy scoring chance.

A team that is losing by one or two goals in the last few minutes of play will often elect to pull the goalie ; that is, remove the goaltender and replace him or her with an extra attacker on the ice in the hope of gaining enough advantage to score a goal.

However, it is an act of desperation, as it sometimes leads to the opposing team extending their lead by scoring a goal in the empty net. One of the most important strategies for a team is their forecheck.

Forechecking is the act of attacking the opposition in their defensive zone. Forechecking is an important part of the dump and chase strategy i.

Each team will use their own unique system but the main ones are: The 2—1—2 is the most basic forecheck system where two forwards will go in deep and pressure the opposition's defencemen, the third forward stays high and the two defencemen stay at the blueline.

The 1—2—2 is a bit more conservative system where one forward pressures the puck carrier and the other two forwards cover the oppositions' wingers, with the two defencemen staying at the blueline.

The 1—4 is the most defensive forecheck system, referred to as the neutral zone trap, where one forward will apply pressure to the puck carrier around the oppositions' blueline and the other 4 players stand basically in a line by their blueline in hopes the opposition will skate into one of them.

Another strategy is the left wing lock , which has two forwards pressure the puck and the left wing and the two defencemen stay at the blueline.

There are many other little tactics used in the game of hockey. Cycling moves the puck along the boards in the offensive zone to create a scoring chance by making defenders tired or moving them out of position.

Pinching is when a defenceman pressures the opposition's winger in the offensive zone when they are breaking out, attempting to stop their attack and keep the puck in the offensive zone.

A saucer pass is a pass used when an opposition's stick or body is in the passing lane. It is the act of raising the puck over the obstruction and having it land on a teammate's stick.

A deke , short for "decoy," is a feint with the body or stick to fool a defender or the goalie. Many modern players, such as Pavel Datsyuk , Sidney Crosby and Patrick Kane , have picked up the skill of "dangling," which is fancier deking and requires more stick handling skills.

Although fighting is officially prohibited in the rules, it is not an uncommon occurrence at the professional level, and its prevalence has been both a target of criticism and a considerable draw for the sport.

At the professional level in North America fights are unofficially condoned. Enforcers and other players fight to demoralize the opposing players while exciting their own, as well as settling personal scores.

A fight will also break out if one of the team's skilled players gets hit hard or someone gets hit by what the team perceives as a dirty hit.

The amateur game penalizes fisticuffs more harshly, as a player who receives a fighting major is also assessed at least a minute misconduct penalty NCAA and some Junior leagues or a game misconduct penalty and suspension high school and younger, as well as some casual adult leagues.

Ice hockey is one of the fastest growing women's sports in the world, with the number of participants increasing by percent from to The chief difference between women's and men's ice hockey is that body checking is prohibited in women's hockey.

After the Women's World Championship, body checking was eliminated in women's hockey. In current IIHF women's competition, body checking is either a minor or major penalty , decided at the referee's discretion.

In Canada, to some extent ringette has served as the female counterpart to ice hockey, in the sense that traditionally, boys have played hockey while girls have played ringette.

Women are known to have played the game in the 19th century. Several games were recorded in the s in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

The women of Lord Stanley's family were known to participate in the game of ice hockey on the outdoor ice rink at Rideau Hall , the residence of Canada's Governor-General.

The game developed at first without an organizing body. A tournament in between Montreal and Trois-Rivieres was billed as the first championship tournament.

Several tournaments, such as at the Banff Winter Carnival, were held in the early 20th century and numerous women's teams such as the Seattle Vamps and Vancouver Amazons existed.

Starting in the s, the game spread to universities. Today, the sport is played from youth through adult leagues, and in the universities of North America and internationally.

There are two major women's hockey leagues, the National Women's Hockey League with teams in the Northeastern United States which is a professional league and the Canadian Women's Hockey League with teams in Canada and the United States, which is semi-professional and is developing toward becoming a fully professional league.

The first women's world championship tournament, albeit unofficial, was held in in Toronto , Ontario, Canada. Women's ice hockey was added as a medal sport at the Winter Olympics in Nagano, Japan.

The United States won the gold, Canada won the silver and Finland won the bronze medal. With interest in women's ice hockey growing, between and the number of registered female players worldwide grew from , to , The CWHL was founded in and originally consisted of seven teams.

As of , there are six teams, although the teams themselves have changed. The league consists of five teams, though it had four teams for the league's first three seasons.

The NHL is by far the best attended and most popular ice hockey league in the world. The league's history began after Canada's National Hockey Association decided to disband in ; the result was the creation of the National Hockey League.

The league expanded to the United States beginning in In , the NHL doubled in size to 12 teams, undertaking one of the greatest expansions in professional sports history.

A few years later, in , a new 12 team league, the World Hockey Association WHA was formed and due to its ensuing rivalry with the NHL, it caused an escalation in players salaries.

This created a 21 team league. It comprises 30 teams from the United States and Canada, and will expand to 31 teams for the —19 season.

The American Collegiate Hockey Association is composed of college teams at the club level. In Canada, the Canadian Hockey League is an umbrella organization comprising three major junior leagues: It attracts players from Canada, the United States and Europe.

Players in this league are strictly amateur, so that they may play college hockey if they wish. The league is the direct successor to the Russian Super League , which in turn was the successor to the Soviet League , the history of which dates back to the Soviet adoption of ice hockey in the s.

The KHL was launched in with clubs predominantly from Russia, but featuring teams from other post-Soviet states.

The league expanded beyond the former Soviet countries beginning in the —12 season , with clubs in Croatia and Slovakia. The number of teams has since increased to 28 from eight different countries.

This league features 24 teams from Russia and 2 from Kazakhstan. The third division is the Russian Hockey League , which features only teams from Russia.

It features 32 teams from post-Soviet states, predominantly Russia. Several countries in Europe have their own top professional senior leagues.

Beginning in the —15 season, the Champions Hockey League was launched, a league consisting of first-tier teams from several European countries, running parallel to the teams' domestic leagues.

The competition is meant to serve as a Europe-wide ice hockey club championship. The competition is a direct successor to the European Trophy and is related to the —09 tournament of the same name.

There are also several annual tournaments for clubs, held outside of league play. One of the oldest international ice hockey competition for clubs is the Spengler Cup , held every year in Davos , Switzerland, between Christmas and New Year's Day.

The Memorial Cup , a competition for junior-level age 20 and under clubs is held annually from a pool of junior championship teams in Canada and the United States.

The World Junior Club Cup is an annual tournament of junior ice hockey clubs representing each of the top junior leagues. Ice hockey has been played at the Winter Olympics since and was played at the summer games in Hockey is Canada's national winter sport, and Canadians are extremely passionate about the game.

The nation has traditionally done very well at the Olympic games, winning 6 of the first 7 gold medals.

However, by its amateur club teams and national teams could not compete with the teams of government-supported players from the Soviet Union.

The USSR won all but two gold medals from to The United States won their first gold medal in On the way to winning the gold medal at the Lake Placid Olympics amateur US college players defeated the heavily favoured Soviet squad—an event known as the " Miracle on Ice " in the United States.

Restrictions on professional players were fully dropped at the games in Calgary. NHL agreed to participate ten years later. Teams are selected from the available players by the individual federations, without restriction on amateur or professional status.

Since it is held in the spring, the tournament coincides with the annual NHL Stanley Cup playoffs and many of the top players are hence not available to participate in the tournament.

Many of the NHL players who do play in the IIHF tournament come from teams eliminated before the playoffs or in the first round, and federations often hold open spots until the tournament to allow for players to join the tournament after their club team is eliminated.

For many years, the tournament was an amateur-only tournament, but this restriction was removed, beginning in In the spirit of best-versus-best without restrictions on amateur or professional status, the series were followed by five Canada Cup tournaments, played in North America.

The United States won in and Canada won in and Since the initial women's world championships in , there have been fifteen tournaments.

The annual Euro Hockey Tour , an unofficial European championship between the national men's teams of the Czech Republic, Finland, Russia and Sweden have been played since — As of , the two top teams of the previous season from each league compete in the Trans-Tasman Champions League.

Ice hockey in Africa is a small but growing sport; while no African ice hockey playing nation has a domestic league, there are several regional leagues in South Africa.

Pond hockey is a form of ice hockey played generally as pick-up hockey on lakes, ponds and artificial outdoor rinks during the winter.

Pond hockey is commonly referred to in hockey circles as shinny. Its rules differ from traditional hockey because there is no hitting and very little shooting, placing a greater emphasis on skating, puckhandling and passing abilities.

Ice hockey is the official winter sport of Canada. Ice hockey, partially because of its popularity as a major professional sport, has been a source of inspiration for numerous films, television episodes and songs in North American popular culture.

A record was set on December 11, , when the University of Michigan 's men's ice hockey team faced cross-state rival Michigan State in an event billed as " The Big Chill at the Big House ".

The game was played at Michigan's American football venue, Michigan Stadium in Ann Arbor , with a capacity of , as of the football season.

When UM stopped sales to the public on May 6, , with plans to reserve remaining tickets for students, over , tickets had been sold for the event.

Guinness World Records , using a count of ticketed fans who actually entered the stadium instead of UM's figure of tickets sold, announced a final figure of , The record was approached but not broken at the NHL Winter Classic , which also held at Michigan Stadium, with the Detroit Red Wings as the home team and the Toronto Maple Leafs as the opposing team with an announced crowd of , Number of registered hockey players, including male, female and junior, provided by the respective countries' federations.

Note that this list only includes the 42 of 76 IIHF member countries with more than 1, registered players as of October From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Redirected from Ice Hockey. For other uses, see Ice hockey disambiguation. This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards.

The specific problem is: January Learn how and when to remove this template message. Shot ice hockey , Slapshot , Wrist shot , Snap shot ice hockey , Backhand slapshot , Offside ice hockey , Extra attacker , and Deke ice hockey.

Fighting in ice hockey. Canadian women's ice hockey history and History of women's ice hockey in the United States. List of ice hockey leagues.

Ice hockey in popular culture. List of ice hockey games with highest attendance. Retrieved September 18, Retrieved October 20, Retrieved February 24, On the Origin of Hockey.

Foedera, conventiones, literae, et cujuscumque generis acta publica, inter reges Angliae, et alios quosvis imperatores, reges, pontifices ab anno Book 3, part 2, p.

Its Origin, Progress, and Equipment. Sport and the Making of Britain. Retrieved May 8, Society for International Hockey Research.

Retrieved June 2, The Queen's University Journal. Retrieved June 21, Archived from the original on August 6, Retrieved May 10, Thomas Raddall Selected Correspondence: From Thomas Raddall to Douglas M.

Fisher, January 25, Retrieved August 1, Retrieved October 16, Retrieved February 5, Archived from the original on September 30, On His Own Side of the Puck.

Archived from the original on October 4, Retrieved October 11, A picture of this trophy can be seen at McCord. Archived from the original on May 15, Archived from the original on February 21, In , owners locked out players, insisting that they accept a salary cap that would slow the rapid growth of payroll costs.

The league resumed play in —06 after the owners ultimately prevailed, and the NHL became the last of the major North American team-sport leagues to institute a salary cap.

The regular season consists of 82 games and determines the 16 teams that will qualify for the play-offs. The play-off winner is awarded the Stanley Cup.

Selke Trophy, for the best defensive forward; the Jack Adams Award, for the coach of the year; the Bill Masterton Memorial Trophy, for the player who best exemplifies sportsmanship, perseverance, and dedication to hockey; and the Lester Patrick Trophy, for outstanding service to U.

For much of the 20th century, amateur athletes dominated international competition. League competition among amateurs in England began in The first European championship was held at Avants, Switzerland, in , with Great Britain the winner.

From that time the federation broadened its membership, taking applicants from the world over. Canada, which also won at the first Olympic Winter Games in , dominated international competition until the emergence of the Soviet team in the early s.

The Soviets continued to be the most powerful team in international hockey until the s and the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Although the decision had little effect on the world tournament , the Winter Games competition underwent numerous changes.

Given the high visibility of professional players and their skills, selection to the Canadian, U. The six "dream teams" were automatically placed in the final round of eight; the two remaining slots were filled by the winners of a qualifying round.

The NHL suspended play for a period of 16 days in so professional players could make their Olympic debut in Nagano , Japan , and it continued to temporarily stop the season for Olympic play thereafter.

Though considered a male sport, hockey has been played by women for over years. The first all-female game was in Barrie, Ontario, Canada, in , and the first world championship was held in NHL hockey is typically played on a standard-size rink shaped like a round-cornered rectangle that is feet 61 metres long and 85 feet 26 metres wide.

International rinks are usually — feet by 85—98 feet, and U. The goal cage is 4 feet 1. Any shot that completely clears the goal line, a 2-inch- 5-cm- wide stripe on the ice across the front of the cage, is a goal.

In front of the goal is the crease , a semicircular area that corresponds to a circle with a 6-foot radius, demarcated by a red line. When the goalie is in the crease, no attacking player may enter unless the puck is there as well; if the goalie is not in the crease, however, anyone may enter.

The blue lines that divide the ice into three zones are 60 feet 18 metres out from the goal line and are painted across the width of the ice.

The area between the blue lines is called the neutral zone. This zone is bisected by the red centre line.

Virtually all equipment—for children, amateurs, or professionals—is the same. Made of vulcanized rubber , the puck is 1 inch 2. Hockey sticks, once made from wood, are now formed from a variety of materials.

Rules are enforced limiting the size of the stick and the curvature of its blade. Forwards and defensemen wear the same type of skates, but goaltenders have flatter blades because they need more balance and are stationary for longer periods.

Players wear padding under their uniforms to protect legs, shoulders, and arms. The goaltender wears a specially designed mask often molded to the contours of his face.

Over his uniform a goalie wears extra equipment. Pads up to 11 inches They not only afford protection but also aid in blocking shots.

The stick hand is encased in a glove with a wide backing that protects his arm. Fully dressed, goaltenders carry up to 40 pounds 18 kg of equipment.

The modern game on every level—amateur, collegiate , international, and professional—has been influenced largely by the NHL. Checking—body contact to take an opponent out of play—is permitted anywhere on the ice.

In most leagues, including the NHL, players may not make or take a pass that has traveled across the two blue lines; if this occurs, the play is ruled offside.

A face-off, in which an official drops the puck between opposing players, follows the infraction. Face-offs are held at the point of the infraction.

Players who precede the puck into the attacking zone also are ruled offside, and a face-off is held at a face-off spot near the attacking blue line.

A face-off also begins each period and is used as well after a goal and after any stoppage of play. The goalie rarely leaves his goal area.

The usual alignments of the other five players are three forwards—the centre, a left wing, and a right wing—and two defensemen—a left defenseman and a right defenseman.

A player may handle the puck as often or as long as he likes, so long as he does not close his glove on the puck or touch the puck with a stick that is higher than shoulder level.

A player may not pass the puck with his open hand. The goalie, however, is generally not subject to these restrictions. The game is divided into three periods of 20 minutes playing time each, with a minute intermission between periods.

Hockey games may end in a tie unless the rules stipulate an overtime period to serve as a tiebreaker. In the case of a tie in college hockey, one minute sudden-death overtime period is played in regular season play.

NHL teams play a five-minute sudden-death overtime period, followed by a shoot-out if the game remains tied.

During the play-offs, college hockey has minute overtime periods until there is a winner, while the NHL has the same system with minute periods.

There is generally no overtime period in international hockey; however, Olympic competition since has had a minute sudden-death period, followed by a shootout if needed.

In organized ice hockey a victory is worth two points in the standings. A tie is worth one point, and the NHL, which has no ties, awards a point to a team that loses in overtime.

A goal counts as a point for the team, but individual points may be awarded to as many as three players for one goal. Ice hockey is the only major sport in which substitutions are permitted while the game is in play.

The game is so fast and so demanding that forwards generally skate only 90 seconds at a time. Defensemen usually stay on the ice for a slightly longer period of time.

Because of the speed and contact, there are many infractions, not all of them having to do with "hitting" penalties. Icing is not called against a team when it is shorthanded; if the teams are evenhanded or if the offending team has more players than the opposing team, the puck is returned to the defensive zone of the team that iced it for the face-off.

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