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She is retired while I work as a consultant and therefore travel frequently to my clients. With the removal of state subsidies and rapid privatization in , Hungary was affected by a severe economic recession.
The Antall government's austerity measures proved unpopular, and the Communist Party's legal and political heir, the Socialist Party , won the subsequent elections.
This abrupt shift in the political landscape was repeated in and ; each electoral cycle, the governing party was ousted and the erstwhile opposition elected.
Like most other post-communist European states, however, Hungary broadly pursued an integrationist agenda, joining NATO in and the European Union in The legislature consequently approved a new constitution , among other sweeping governmental and legal changes.
Although these developments were met with and still engender controversy, Fidesz secured a second parliamentary supermajority in and a third in The vote was carried with the support of MEPs, narrowly clearing the two-thirds majority required.
The vote marked the first the European parliament had triggered an article 7 procedure against an EU member state. Hungary's geography has traditionally been defined by its two main waterways, the Danube and Tisza rivers.
The Danube flows north-south right through the center of contemporary Hungary, and the entire country lies within its drainage basin.
Transdanubia , which stretches westward from the center of the country toward Austria, is a primarily hilly region with a terrain varied by low mountains.
To the north of the Plain are the foothills of the Carpathians in a wide band near the Slovakian border. Lake Balaton , the largest lake in Central Europe.
Bükk National Park ; Bükk is rich in karst formations, such as limestone caves. The Tisza is one of the main rivers of Central Europe.
Balaton Uplands National Park. Autumn in the Bükk Mountains. Hungary has a continental climate ,  with hot summers with low overall humidity levels but frequent rainshowers and cold snowy winters.
Average annual temperature is 9. Temperature extremes are Hungary is a unitary , parliamentary , representative democratic republic.
The Hungarian political system operates under a framework reformed in ; this constitutional document is the Fundamental Law of Hungary.
Amendments generally require a two-thirds majority of parliament; the fundamental principles of the constitution as expressed in the articles guaranteeing human dignity, the separation of powers, the state structure, and the rule of law are valid in perpetuity.
The president is invested primarily with representative responsibilities and powers: Importantly, the president is also invested with veto power , and may send legislation to the member Constitutional Court for review.
The third most-significant governmental position in Hungary is the Speaker of the National Assembly , who is elected by the National Assembly and responsible for overseeing the daily sessions of the body.
The Prime Minister miniszterelnök is elected by the National Assembly, serving as the head of government and exercising executive power.
Traditionally, the Prime Minister is the leader of the largest party in parliament. The Prime Minister selects Cabinet ministers and has the exclusive right to dismiss them, although cabinet nominees must appear before consultative open hearings before one or more parliamentary committees , survive a vote in the National Assembly, and be formally approved by the president.
The cabinet reports to parliament. According to Eurostat , the government gross debt of Hungary amounts to Since the fall of communism, Hungary has a multi-party system.
The last Hungarian parliamentary election took place on 8 April The new electoral law also entered into force that day. The voters elected MPs instead of previous lawmakers.
The democratic character of the Hungarian parliament was reestablished with the fall of the Iron Curtain and the end of communist dictatorship in The Diet of Hungary was a legislative institution in the medieval kingdom of Hungary from the s,   and in its successor states, Royal Hungary and the Habsburg kingdom of Hungary throughout the Early Modern period.
The articles of the diet set out that the diet should meet at least once every 3 years, but, since the diet was called by the Habsburg monarchy , this promise was not kept on several occasions thereafter.
As a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise , it was reconstituted in The Latin term Natio Hungarica "Hungarian nation" was used to designate the political elite which had participation in the diet, consisting of the nobility , the Catholic clergy, and a few enfranchised burghers,   regardless of language or ethnicity.
The judicial system of Hungary is a civil law system divided between courts with regular civil and criminal jurisdiction and administrative courts with jurisdiction over litigation between individuals and the public administration.
Hungarian law is codified and based on German law and in a wider sense, civil law or Roman law. Hungary's highest courts are located in Budapest.
The Hungarian Police is the main and largest state law enforcement agency in Hungary. It carries nearly all general police duties such as criminal investigation, patrol activity, traffic policing, border control.
The body is divided into county police departments which are also divided into regional and town police departments.
This merger took place in January Hungary is a unitary state nation divided into 19 counties megye. The local authorities of these towns have extended powers, but these towns belong to the territory of the respective district instead of being independent territorial units.
County and district councils and municipalities have different roles and separate responsibilities relating to local government.
The role of the counties are basically administrative and focus on strategic development, while preschools, public water utilities, garbage disposal, elderly care and rescue services are administered by the municipalities.
Since , the counties and City of Budapest have been grouped into 7 regions for statistical and development purposes. Hungary wields considerable influence in Central and Eastern Europe and is a middle power in international affairs.
The Hungarian economy is fairly open and relies strongly on international trade. Hungary took on the presidency of the Council of the European Union for half a year in and the next will be in Hungary's capital city, Budapest, is home to more than embassies and representative bodies as an international political actor.
Since , Hungary's top foreign policy goal has been achieving integration into Western economic and security organizations.
Hungary since has also improved its often frosty neighborly relations by signing basic treaties with Romania , Slovakia , and Ukraine. These renounce all outstanding territorial claims and lay the foundation for constructive relations.
However, the issue of ethnic Hungarian minority rights in Romania, Slovakia and Serbia periodically causes bilateral tensions to flare up.
Since , the relations with Ukraine rapidly deteriorated over the issue of the Hungarian minority in Ukraine. The Global Peace Index ranked Hungary 19th out of countries.
The President holds the title of commander-in-chief of the nation's armed forces. Since , the Hungarian Armed Forces is under a unified command structure.
The Ministry of Defence maintains the political and civil control over the army. In , the armed forces had 31, personnel on active duty, the operative reserve brought the total number of troops to fifty thousand.
In , the government adopted a resolution in which it pledged to increase defence spending to 1. Military service is voluntary, though conscription may occur in wartime.
Hungarian National Cyber Security Center is re-organized in in order to become more efficient through cyber security.
Hungary sent strong logistics unit to Iraq in order to help the US occupation with armed transport convoys, though public opinion opposed the country's participation in the war.
One soldier was killed in action because of a roadside bomb in Iraq. During the 18th and 19th century, Hungarian Hussars rose to international fame and served as a model for light cavalry in many European countries.
In , the Ludovica Military Academy officially began training cadets. By HDF already had over 2, officers and , men organized into eighty-six battalions and fifty-eight squadrons.
During the s and early s, Hungary was preoccupied with regaining the territories and population lost in the Trianon peace treaty at Versailles in Conscription was introduced on a national basis in The peacetime strength of the Royal Hungarian Army grew to 80, men organized into seven corps commands.
During the Socialist and the Warsaw Pact era — , the entire , strong Southern Group of Forces was garrisoned in Hungary, complete with artillery, tank regiments, air force and missile troops with nuclear weapons.
Hungary is an OECD high-income mixed economy with very high human development index and skilled labour force with the 16th lowest income inequality in the world, furthermore it is the 15th most complex economy according to the Economic Complexity Index.
Hungary is an export-oriented market economy with a heavy emphasis on foreign trade , thus the country is the 36th largest export economy in the world.
On the expenditure side, household consumption is the main component of GDP and accounts for 50 percent of its total use, followed by gross fixed capital formation with 22 percent and government expenditure with 20 percent.
Electronics manufacturing and research are among the main drivers of innovation and economic growth in the country. In the past 20 years Hungary has also grown into a major center for mobile technology , information security , and related hardware research.
Unemployment rate was 4. Hungary is part of the European single market which represents more than million consumers. Several domestic commercial policies are determined by agreements among European Union members and by EU legislation.
Budapest is the financial and business capital of Hungary. Hungary maintains its own currency, the Hungarian forint HUF , although the economy fulfills the Maastricht criteria with the exception of public debt, but it is also significantly below the EU average with the level of Hungary's achievements in science and technology have been significant, and research and development efforts form an integral part of the country's economy.
Hungary also has one of the highest rates of filed patents , the 6th highest ratio of high-tech and medium high-tech output in the total industrual output, the 12th highest research FDI inflow, placed 14th in research talent in business enterprise and has the 17th best overall innovation efficiency ratio in the world.
The key actor of research and development in Hungary is the National Research, Development and Innovation Office NRDI Office , which is a national strategic and funding agency for scientific research, development and innovation , the primary source of advice on RDI policy for the Hungarian Government , and the primary RDI funding agency.
Scientific research in the country is supported partly by industry and partly by the state, through the network of Hungarian universities and by scientific state-institutions such as Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
Tabula Hungariae and Bibliotheca Corviniana. Contemporary, internationally well-known Hungarian scientists include: Hungary is famous for its excellent mathematics education which has trained numerous outstanding scientists.
Hungary has a highly developed road, railway, air and water transport system. Budapest, Debrecen , Miskolc , and Szeged have tram networks.
The Budapest Metro is the second-oldest underground metro system in the world; its Line 1 dates from The system consists of four lines.
Motorway sections are being added to the existing network, which already connects many major economically important cities to the capital.
The most important port is Budapest. There are five international airports in Hungary: Low-budget airline WizzAir is based in Hungary, at Ferihegy.
Hungary's population was 9,, according to the census , making it the fifth most populous country in Central and Eastern Europe and medium-sized member state of the European Union.
Population density stands at inhabitants per square kilometre, which is about two times higher than the world average.
More than one quarter of the population lived in the Budapest metropolitan area , 6,, people Like most other European countries, Hungary is experiencing sub-replacement fertility ; its estimated total fertility rate of 1.
In , the conservative government began a program to increase the birth rate with a focus on ethnic Magyars by reinstating 3 year maternity leave as well as boosting part-time jobs.
The birth rate has gradually increased from 1. Hungary recognizes two sizable minority groups, designated as "national minorities" because their ancestors have lived in their respective regions for centuries in Hungary: German community of about , that lives throughout the country, and a Romani minority numerous around , that mainly resides in the northern part of the country.
According to the census, there were 8,, Today approximately 5 million Hungarians live outside Hungary. Hungarian is the official and predominant spoken language in Hungary.
Hungarian is the 13th most widely spoken first language in Europe with around 13 million native speakers and it is one of 24 official and working languages of the European Union.
According to the census, 9,, people Hungarian Magyar is a member of the Uralic language family , unrelated to any neighboring language and distantly related to Finnish and Estonian.
It is the largest of the Uralic languages in terms of the number of speakers and the only one spoken in Central Europe.
Standard Hungarian is based on the variety spoken in the capital of Budapest , although use of the standard dialect is enforced, Hungarian has a number of urban and rural dialects.
Hungary is a historically Christian country. Hungarian historiography identifies the foundation of the Hungarian state with Stephen I's baptism and coronation with the Holy Crown in A.
Stephen promulgated Roman Catholicism as the state religion, and his successors were traditionally known as the Apostolic Kings.
Contemporary Hungary, however, has no official religion. While the constitution "recognizes Christianity's nation-building role",  freedom of religion is a fundamental right.
With the onset of the Protestant Reformation , most Hungarians took up first Lutheranism , then soon afterwards Calvinism. In the second half of the 16th century, however, Jesuits led a Counterreformation campaign and the population once again became predominantly Catholic.
However, in comparison to other European regions where such efforts were undertaken, it was not at all successful largely because of religious freedom secured by Hungarian nobles, who often happened to be Calvinist themselves.
Some localities all over Hungary are still majority Protestant either Lutheran or Reformed and the country's eastern regions, especially around Debrecen the "Calvinist Rome" , remain predominantly Reformed.
Orthodox Christianity in Hungary is associated with the country's ethnic minorities: Historically, Hungary was home to a significant Jewish community.
Some Hungarian Jews were able to escape the Holocaust during World War II, but most perhaps ,  were either deported to concentration camps, whence most did not return, or murdered in Hungary by Arrow Cross members.
The census showed that the majority of Hungarians were Christians Education in Hungary is predominantly public, run by the Ministry of Education.
Preschool - kindergarten education is compulsory and provided for all children between three and six years old, after which school attendance is also compulsory until the age of sixteen.
Secondary education includes three traditional types of schools focused on different academic levels: The system is partly flexible and bridges exist, graduates from a vocational school can achieve a two years program to have access to vocational higher education for instance.
Most of the Hungarian universities are public institutions , and students traditionally study without fee payment. The general requirement for university is the Matura.
The Hungarian public higher education system includes universities and other higher education institutes, that provide both education curricula and related degrees up to doctoral degree and also contribute to research activities.
Health insurance for students is free until the end of their studies. English and German language is important in Hungarian higher education, there are a number of degree programs that are taught in these languages, which attracts thousands of exchange students every year.
Hungary's higher education and training has been ranked 44 out of countries in the Global competitiveness Report Hungary has a long tradition of higher education reflecting the existence of established knowledge economy.
The Budapest University of Technology and Economics is considered the oldest institute of technology in the world with university rank and structure, its legal predecessor the Institutum Geometrico-Hydrotechnicum was founded in by Emperor Joseph II.
The Hungarian health care system is one of universal health care largely financed by government national health insurance.
Total health expenditure was 1, Hungary is one of the main destinations of medical tourism in Europe. Hungary is home to numerous medicinal spas ,  spa tourism sometimes combined with other treatments.
Notable architectural styles in Hungary include Historicism and Art Nouveau , or rather several variants of Art Nouveau.
In contrast to Historicism, Hungarian Art Nouveau is based on the national architectural characteristics.
Taking the eastern origins of the Hungarians into account, Ödön Lechner — , the most important figure in Hungarian Art Nouveau, was initially inspired by Indian and Syrian architecture, and later by traditional Hungarian decorative designs.
In this way, he created an original synthesis of architectural styles. By applying them to three-dimensional architectural elements, he produced a version of Art Nouveau that was specific to Hungary.
Besides the two principal styles, Budapest also displays local versions of trends originating from other European countries. The Sezession from Vienna , the German Jugendstil , Art Nouveau from Belgium and France, and the influence of English and Finnish architecture are all reflected in the buildings constructed at the turn of the 20th century.
In the sphere of applied arts, those chiefly responsible for promoting the spread of Art Nouveau were the School and Museum of Decorative Arts, which opened in Foreigners have unexpectedly "discovered" that a significantly large portion of the citizens live in old and architecturally valuable buildings.
In the Budapest downtown area almost all the buildings are about one hundred years old, with thick walls, high ceilings, and motifs on the front wall.
Hungarian traditional music tends to have a strong dactylic rhythm, as the language is invariably stressed on the first syllable of each word. His music was invigorated by the themes, modes, and rhythmic patterns of the Hungarian and neighboring folk music traditions he studied, which he synthesized with influences from his contemporaries into his own distinctive style.
Hungary has made many contributions to the fields of folk , popular and classical music. Hungarian folk music is a prominent part of the national identity and continues to play a major part in Hungarian music.
After the establishment of a music academy led by Ferenc Erkel and Franz Liszt Hungary produced an important number of art musicians:.
Broughton claims that Hungary's "infectious sound has been surprisingly influential on neighboring countries thanks perhaps to the common Austro-Hungarian history and it's not uncommon to hear Hungarian-sounding tunes in Romania, Slovakia and Poland".
Hungarian classical music has long been an "experiment, made from Hungarian antecedents and on Hungarian soil, to create a conscious musical culture [using the] musical world of the folk song".
During the era of Communist rule in Hungary — , a Song Committee scoured and censored popular music for traces of subversion and ideological impurity.
Older veteran underground bands such as Beatrice , from the s, also remain popular. In the earliest times, Hungarian language was written in a runic-like script although it was not used for literature purposes in the modern interpretation.
The country switched to the Latin alphabet after being Christianized under the reign of Stephen I of Hungary — It is also the oldest surviving Uralic poem.
Both are in Latin. These chronicles mix history with legends, so historically they are not always authentic. Renaissance literature flourished under the reign of King Matthias — Janus Pannonius , although he wrote in Latin, counts as one of the most important persons in Hungarian literature, being the only significant Hungarian Humanist poet of the period.
The first book printed in Hungary was the Chronica Hungarorum. Balassi's poetry shows Mediaeval influences, his poems can be divided into three sections: The translation is called the Bible of Vizsoly , after the town where it was first published.
See Bible translations into Hungarian for more details. The Hungarian enlightenment took place about fifty years after the French enlightenment.
The greatest figure of the language reform was Ferenc Kazinczy. The Hungarian language became feasible for all type of scientific explanations from this time, and furthermore many new words were coined for describing new inventions.
Hungarian literature has recently gained some renown outside the borders of Hungary mostly through translations into German, French and English.
The latter is a contemporary Jewish writer who survived the Holocaust and won the Nobel Prize for literature in The older classics of Hungarian literature and Hungarian poetry have remained almost totally unknown outside Hungary.
Dishes are often flavoured with paprika ground red peppers , a Hungarian innovation. Thick, heavy Hungarian sour cream called tejföl is often used to soften the dishes' flavour.
Perec and kifli are widely popular pastries. It is a spirit native to Hungary and comes in a variety of flavours including apricot barack and cherry cseresznye.
However, plum szilva is the most popular flavour. Beer goes well with many traditional Hungarian dishes. The five main Hungarian brands are: Since the fall of communism there has been a renaissance in Hungarian wine-making.
The choice of quality wine is widening from year to year. The country can be divided to six wine regions: Hungarian wine regions offer a great variety of styles: The main varieties are: Tokaji wine has received accolades from numerous great writers and composers including Beethoven , Liszt , Schubert and Goethe ; Joseph Haydn 's favorite wine was a Tokaji.
For over years, a blend of 40 Hungarian herbs has been used to create the liqueur Unicum. Hungary is a land of thermal water.
A passion for spa culture and Hungarian history have been connected from the very beginning. Hungarian spas feature Roman , Greek , Turkish , and northern country architectural elements.
Approximately 1, thermal springs can be found in Hungary more than just in the Capital area. There are approximately public baths in Hungary.
The Romans heralded the first age of spas in Hungary. In the 19th century, the advancement in deep drilling and medical science provided the springboard for a further leap in bathing culture.
Old style dances dating back to the Middle Ages. Solo or couple dances accompanied by old style music, shepherd and other solo man's dances from Transylvania , and marching dances along with remnants of medieval weapon dances belong in this group.
New style dances developed in the 18—19th centuries is the Hungarian name for the national dances, with Hungarian embroidered costumes and energetic music.
Although usually danced by young men, it can be also danced by older men. The dance is generally performed freestyle by one dancer at a time in front of a band.
Women participate in the dance by standing in lines to the side, and singing or shouting verses while the men dance.
Each man performs a number of points dance phrases , typically four to eight without repetition. Each point consists of four parts, each lasting four counts.
The first part is usually the same for everyone there are only a few variations. It was in the beginning of the 18th-century that the present style of Hungarian folk art took shape, incorporating both Renaissance and Baroque elements, depending on the area, as well as Persian Sassanide influences.
Flowers and leaves, sometimes a bird or a spiral ornament, are the principal decorative themes. The most frequent ornament is a flower with a centerpiece resembling the eye of a peacock's feather.
Nearly all the manifestations of folk art practiced elsewhere in Europe also flourished among the Magyar peasantry at one time or another, their ceramics and textile being the most highly developed of all.
The finest achievements in their textile arts are the embroideries which vary from region to region. Soft in line, the embroideries are applied on altar cloths, pillow-cases and sheets.
The embroidery motifs applied to women's wear have also been transposed to tablecloths and runners suitable for modern use as wall decorations. These vessels, made of black clay, reflect more than three hundred years of traditional Transdanubian folk patterns and shapes.
No two are precisely alike, since all work is done by hand, including both the shaping and the decorating. The imprints are made by the thumb or a finger of the ceramist who makes the piece.
Founded in , Herend Porcelain is one of the world's largest ceramic factories, specializing in luxury hand painted and gilded porcelain.
In the midth century it was purveyor to the Habsburg Dynasty and aristocratic customers throughout Europe.
Many of its classic patterns are still in production. Zsolnay Porcelain Manufacture is a Hungarian manufacturer of porcelain, pottery, ceramics, tiles and stoneware.
The company introduced the eosin glazing process and pyrogranite ceramics. In , his son, Vilmos Zsolnay — joined the company and became its manager and director after several years.
He led the factory to worldwide recognition by demonstrating its innovative products at world fairs and international exhibitions, including the World Fair in Vienna, then at the World Fair in Paris, where Zsolnay received a Grand Prix.
Hungarian athletes have been successful contenders in the Olympic Games , only ten countries have won more Olympic medals than Hungary, with a total of medals ranking eighth in an all-time Olympic Games medal count.
Hungary has the third-highest number of Olympic medals per capita and second-highest number of gold medals per capita in the world.
In water polo the Hungarian team is the leading medal winner by a significant margin and in swimming Hungarian men are fourth most successful overall, while the women are eighth most successful overall.
They have also seen success in canoeing and kayaking they are the third most successful overall. Hungary won its first gold medal in Winter Olympics in in mens short track speed skating with a team of four: Budapest has also lost several bids to host the games, in , , , , and to Berlin , Antwerp , London , and Rome , respectively.
At the Hungarian Grand Prix , it was confirmed that Hungary will continue to host a Formula 1 race until Chess is also a popular and successful sport in Hungary, the Hungarian players are the 10th most powerful overall on the ranking of World Chess Federation.
Some of the world's best sabre athletes have historically also hailed from Hungary,   and in , the Hungarian national ice hockey team qualified for their first IIHF World Championship , in , they qualified for their second World Championship in the top division.
The side of that era has the second all-time highest Football Elo Ranking in the world , with , and one of the longest undefeated runs in football history, remaining unbeaten in 31 games spanning more than four years.
The post-golden age decades saw a gradually weakening Hungary, though recently there is renewal in all aspects. The Hungarian Children's Football Federation was founded in , as youth development thrives.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country. For other uses, see Hungary disambiguation.
Studies indicate a considerably larger number of Roma in Hungary: Hungarian prehistory and Hungarian mythology.
Hungary between the World Wars and Hungarian interwar economy. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.
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List of national parks of Hungary. This section contains what may be an unencyclopedic or excessive gallery of images. Galleries containing indiscriminate images of the article subject are discouraged ; please help improve the section by reducing indiscriminate gallery sections or by moving relevant images beside adjacent text, in accordance with the Manual of Style on use of images.
Political parties in Hungary and Elections in Hungary. Law of Hungary and Law enforcement in Hungary. Administrative divisions of Hungary.
Foreign relations of Hungary. Science and technology in Hungary and Education in Hungary. Demographics of Hungary and Hungarians. Largest urban areas of Hungary.
Hungarian language and Languages of Hungary. List of Hungarian architects. Hungarian wine and Beer in Hungary.
Herend Porcelain and Zsolnay. Hungary at the Olympics. Hungary portal Europe portal.